South Carolina History

Following the Yamasee War, the Catawba never again forsook their alliance with the government and furnished warriors in every war in which the white people became engaged. As early as the Revolution they had become pitifully reduced in numbers, yet today they still preserve their tribal identity. Of the 200 or more in the State, only six or seven claim to be full-blooded Indian. On their tiny reservation in York County they continue to make the beautiful pottery for which they have established a deserved reputation. Though influenced to some extent by modern designs, their work is an interesting survival of an old Indian ceramic art.

Smallpox, war, and the cruel practice of Indian slavery reduced the aboriginal population of South Carolina almost to the vanishing point. Nevertheless, there are several small friendly groups that never deserted their original territory. These people, variously styled as Croatans, Red Bones, and Brass Ankles, are found in widely separated parts of the State, particularly in Dorchester, Colleton, Clarendon, Chesterfield, Marlboro, and Marion Counties. Similar though smaller groups exist in many other sections. The 'Turks' of Sumter County undoubtedly possess some Indian blood. Most of these mixed-blood remnants are found on the wide scrub-covered sweeps of the Sand Hill belt or in the dense swamps of the coastal rivers. They are generally small farmers who depend to a large extent upon hunting and fishing for their livelihood. Though independent and secretive, they are staunch friends once their confidence is gained.

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