Pacific Coast Forest Region Canada

In the mild and humid climate of the Pacific coast forest trees grow luxuriantly. The dominant species are conifers including western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata). Associated with these are Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) in the north and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia) in the south. Other conifers found here are western white pine (Pinus monticola), amabilis fir (Abies amabilis), alpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), and mountain hemlock (Tsuga Mertensiana). Alluvial lands in the south are occupied by black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa), red alder (Alnus rubra), broad-leaved maple (Acer macrophyllum) and grand fir (Abies grandis) In the dry summer area madrona (Arbutus Menziesii), cascara (Rhamnus Purshiana) and Garry oak (Quercus garryana) are characteristic species.

Among the characteristic shrubs of the coast are red-flowerer currant (Ribes sanguineum), salmon berry (R. spectabilis), Indian plum (Osmaronia cerasiformis), salal (Gaultheria Shallon) and red billberry (Vaccinium parvifolium). Common herbaceous species include western buttercup (Ranunculus occidentalis) , cut-leaved goldthread (Coptis asplenifolia), vanilla leaf (Achlys triphylla) and many-flowered Dutchman's breeches (Dicentra formosa).

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