The chief centre of the herring fishery is Bay of Islands on the west coast, where large pickling and canning plants are located.
Salmon are caught in May, June and July and are mainly marketed as frozen fish.
Lobsters are caught on the south and west coasts and in Notre Dame Bay. They are exported alive from the south and west coasts but in Notre Dame Bay and Fortune Bay several canneries are located. Some exporters have successfully operated an "airlift" of live lobsters to the United States.
The hair seals of the North Atlantic annually migrate between the Arctic seas and the Grand Banks. In February the young are born on the floating ice fields off the coast of Newfoundland. For six or seven weeks they remain on the ice before taking to the water for the northward migration. At this time the young seal or "whitecoat" weighs about 50 pounds and has a two-inch layer of fat under its skin. The skin which is made into leather and the oil obtained from the fat are valuable commercial products.
The seal hunt is one of the most colourful and dangerous occupations of the Newfoundland seaman. It takes place during March and April. Formerly sailing vessels were employed but of late years specially constructed steamships have been used in the industry.
Sealing was almost a Newfoundland monopoly although in some years vessels from Nova Scotia and from Norway joined in the hunt.
Forestry has become an important source of income in Newfoundland, especially since the development of the pulp and paper industry to make use of the small coniferous trees which clothe nearly half of the island.