The Boreal Forest or Taiga extends from Newfoundland to Alaska. The principal trees are white and black spruce, balsam fir (Abies balsamea), aspen (Populus tremuloides), large-toothed aspen (P. grandidentata), balsam poplar (P. tacamahaca), Balm of Gilead (P. candicans), paper birch and jack pine (Pinus Banksiana). In the far northwest, alpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and Alaska white birch (Betula alaskana) are found. The previously mentioned shrubs are found here together with others commonly found in more southern regions. Herbaceous plants of the forest floor include gold thread (Coptis trifolia), kidney-leaved violet (Viola renifolia), bunch-berry (Cornus canadensis), Coral root (Corallorrhiza trifida), Clintonia (Clintonia borealis) and twinflower (Linnaea borealis). There are also many ferns.
The eastern half of this forest belt, from Manitoba to Newfoundland is the great area of pulpwood exploitation.