South Carolina's principal natural resource is its farm land, which more than 63 per cent of the State's total land area. Especially in the Up Country, where rivers flow between rolling hills now largely denuded of their original forests, erosion has taken a heavy toll of soils. Much of the eroded land includes both types, about 700,000 acres being ruined altogether for agricultural purposes. Under a program conducted by State and Federal agencies, conservation projects have been established in five areas, where there are diversity of soil types, severity of erosion, and proximity to large groups of farmers who might take advantage of the demonstrations. Tree planting, strip cropping, and crop rotation are methods used to reclaim much of this land. Sections too steep or too badly eroded for efficient cultivation are devoted to pasturage or reforestation. The two principal soil conservation projects are the South Tiger River area in Spartanburg and Greenville Counties, and the Fishing Creek area in Chester and York Counties.
Though the forests of South Carolina have suffered severely from overexploitation, they still form one of the chief economic resources of the State. To preserve the forests that remain and add to their acreage, both Federal and State governments have organized facilities in South Carolina. There are two national forests in the State, the Francis Marion and the Sumter. The Sumter forest is in three divisions: the mountain division in Oconee and Pickens Counties; the Enoree division in Chester, Fairfield, Laurens, Newberry, and Union Counties; and the Long Cane division in Abbeville, Edgefield, Greenwood, McCormick, and Saluda Counties. Tree planting, strip cropping, and crop rotation are methods used to reclaim much of this land. Sections too steep or too badly eroded for efficient cultivation are devoted to pasturage or reforestation.