Burgenland Austria, Vienna Basin


A small part of the Little Hungarian Plain, the socalled Burgenland, was given to Austria after the World War I. Grapes ripen along the shore of the Neusiedler Lake, and grains do well except on the more sandy southern part where forests replace crops. But the fact that the most important city (Odenburg) remains with Hungary, although almost surrounded by Austria, is a disadvantage.

Vienna Basin

The rural importance of this most fertile part of Austria is entirely overshadowed by its urban importance as the seat of Vienna, Austria's magnificent capital. Located in the gap between the Alps and Carpathians, Vienna has been for centuries one of Europe's most important cities--often a bulwark against the east and at the same time the gate to western Europe. If ever the dream of one of the Viennese philosophers, Count Coudenhoven Kalergi, should be realized through the establishment of an economic union of all Europe, Vienna might claim that its central location makes it the most suitable place for the "Pan-European" capital. But its present size of nearly two million is a handicap because it is a relic of prewar conditions. In the days before the World War I Vienna used her advantageous location and her prestige as the capital of the AustroHungarian Empire to concentrate in herself most of the cultural and political life of the old empire as well as much of the industrial activity. Now the destruction of the Empire, the loss of former resources such as coal, and the assignment of territories close to the city such as the Morava Valley to other nations has left Vienna without the necessary geographical foundation for so large a city.

Nevertheless, Vienna is still one of Europe's most charming cities; its influence on science, fashion, music, and economic and social reforms goes far beyond the boundaries of Austria; and industrial production is still active. This latter activity extends southward along the foot of the Alps to Wiener Neustadt.

Graz Basin Alpine Foreland Bohemian Plateau

The Graz Basin

The Mur River system of the Graz Basin also opens towards a foreign country, Slovenia. Relatively low elevation gives rise to a fairly warm climate and to more intensive agriculture than in any other Alpine region. The value of the basin for Austria, however, lies in the existence of mineral resources, especially iron ore, as well as of sources of power in the form of lignite and water. These make the capital, Graz, not only a rural market and universal city, but also the center of industrial development.

The Alpine Foreland

South of the Austrian Danube the Alpine Foreland continues eastward from Bavaria. Glacial lakes and beautiful scenery along the base of the mountains give rise to numerous summer resorts. A cover of loess makes for great fertility in the hilly section with its entrenched river valleys, and widespread grain fields distinguish this Foreland as Austria's best farming region aside from the Vienna Basin.

The Bohemian Plateau

North of the Danube lies the southern part of the Bohemian Plateau. In places it even extends south of the river, for instead of everywhere following the edge of the Alpine Foreland, the Danube has in some places cut its way into the plateau. The old erosion surface rises gently toward the divide between the Danube and the Elbe, which the present boundary more or less follows. Part of this upland, especially the eastern section, is of good fertility and is devoted to crops, but on the poorer parts forests prevail.

Austria Inn-Salzach-Enns Region Klagenfurt Basin

East of Arlberg a much larger natural region contains the northern longitudinal valley and the adjacent mountain ranges. Human occupancy, as might be expected, is concentrated in the main valleys, where many prosperous villages raise field crops and fruit on the valley bottoms, graze their cattle on the high meadows, and work in winter in the great mountain forests. The western part, Tirol, has a special disadvantage in that its logical outlet is northwards down the Inn and Salzach valleys to southern Bavaria. Here a political separation prevents the economic co-operation between the mountains and their foreland which has worked out so well in Switzerland. Similar conditions limit the development of the Salzburg region which lies in the Austrian part of the foreland where the boundary turns north. In both sections, Tirol and Salzburg, the feeling for union with Germany is strongly developed. One evidence of the close relationship with Germany is found in the fact that in this Tirolean westward extension of Austria motor cars turn to the right, as in Germany, whereas everywhere else in the old AustroHungarian Empire they turn to the left. Innsbruck, a delightful town at the junction of the Vorarlberg railroad with the Brenner line which leads into Italy, is a classical example of a city at the foot of an important mountain pass.

The Klagenfurt Basin

Located between the southeastward or Dinaric wing of the Alps and the central section which continues straight east, the Klagenfurt region is part of the Drava River system and geographically looks toward Slovenia. With its continental climate (cold winters and warm summers), favorable relief, and fertile soils, the basin is very productive and well populated. Its chief significance, however, is its central location in regard to the railroads. Two northern passes (Tauern and Semmering) connect it with the rest of Austria, while two southern passes permit the continuation of these two roads from the north directly southwards, respectively, to the Italian Plain and Trieste.

The Alps, Bohemian Plateau, the Alpine Foreland

The Alps

Small as it is, Austria is divided into a number of natural divisions. Their large number and diversity are among the country's chief disadvantages. Austria comprises parts of the Bohemian Plateau, the Alpine Foreland, the Alps themselves, and even a small share of the Little Hungarian Plain, while Vienna in its basin is a region by itself. The Alps run from Switzerland through Austria, but the corresponding sections of the Pre-Alps and Alpine Foreland are located for the greater part outside the Austrian boundaries. In Austria, as in Switzerland, there is a marked tendency toward longitudinal valleys, here two in number. As a rule these follow the lines of contact between the limestone zones and the old mountain nucleus of granite and schists. Thus the Austrian Alps show three ranges extending from east to west: the northern limestone mountains, often with high plateaus like the Dachstein (10,000 feet); the central zone with its highest elevation covered by glaciers; and the southern limestone zone, the Dolomites, extending into Italy. These three are separated by the longitudinal (east-west) depressions of the upper parts of the Inn, Salzach, and Enns valleys in the north, and of the Drava system, with the Klagenfurt Basin, in the south. Here, as in Switzerland, the present relief is probably due to the uplift and warping of an old erosion surface, after which the rivers adjusted themselves to the new conditions. Broad valleys, picturesque villages, wooded slopes, glaciated peaks, and the perpendicular walls of limestone plateaus attract thousands of people to the Austrian Alps, so that the care of tourists is almost as important as in Switzerland.


The various river systems divide the Austrian Alps into several well-defined sections. The most western of these is the mountainous little district of Arlberg. Lying between Bavaria and the Swiss Grisons, it forms the Austrian portion of the Rhine Valley. High mountains separate it from the Inn Valley farther east, while broad tributary valleys of the Rhine open westwards towards Switzerland and the Lake of Constance. The Austrian portion of the Rhine Valley contains most of the industrial life and agriculture of the region; the mountains have grazing and forestry. The Arlberg Pass is used by the railway from Paris through Basel and Zurich to Innsbruck and Vienna. This gives to this zone a strategic value, since it connects Paris and Vienna without the use of German or Italian territory. In as much as most of the people of Arlberg live in the Rhine Valley and are separated from the Inn Valley by high mountains their ties with the rest of Austria are loose. The little state of Liechtenstein, a historical remnant, lies at the southwestern corner of Arlberg. Before the War it was economically a part of Austria-Hungary, but has now a similar arrangement with Switzerland.

Factors in Holland's Greatness

Holland's well-balanced blending of successful agriculture, industry, and trade gives it a standing far above its relative position in size and population. Even a casual visitor is struck by the country's atmosphere of contentment, prosperity, and culture. Although Holland, like other countries, occasionally faces bad times, it does not seem to suffer much. Aside from the general geographical advantages of western Europe, of which climate is the most important, three factors have had special weight in giving Holland its outstanding position among the smaller nations. The first and foremost is the physical background of Holland, and the consequent battle between man and water. The Dutch, like the Swiss, are products of an originally unproductive environment. This they conquered, and thus, as in Switzerland, not only made a living, but converted themselves into a nation of strong individualists, purified through natural selection. We shall come back later to this physical background and study it in greater detail.

The second non-climatic factor in giving Holland its outstanding position is the country's location not only at the outlet of the Rhine, Europe's most important river, but especially in the center of Europe's greatest industrial region. The location on the Rhine has made Rotterdam one of Europe's greatest harbors. The traffic on this river, however, consists mostly of goods in transit between Germany or Switzerland and regions across the water, and hence does not affect Holland very much.

The location in respect to the great industrial centers, on the contrary, has been largely responsible for the way in which Holland during the nineteenth century developed into a country of intensive agriculture. For scores of miles the region immediately to the south and southeast of Holland in Belgium and Germany is almost like one huge city where fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, which Holland can raise, are used in vast quantities. In recent years strong nationalistic tendencies have hampered the logical exchange of food for manufactured products, and the Dutch farmers may be forced more and more to rely on crops for the subsistence of Holland alone, and not for sale abroad.

Americans go to Paris to enjoy themselves

Americans go to London for social triumph, to Rome for art's sake, and to Berlin to study music and to economize; but they go to Paris to enjoy themselves. And there are no young men of any nation who enter into the accomplishment of this so heartily and so completely as does the young American.

Paris determined to see all that any one else has ever seen, and to outdo all that any one else has ever done, and to stir that city to its suburbs. He saves his time, his money, and his superfluous energy for this visit, and the most amusing part of it is that he always leaves Paris fully assured that he has enjoyed himself while there more thoroughly than any one else has ever done, and that the city will require two or three months' rest before it can readjust itself after the shock and wonder due to his meteoric flight through its limits. Paris, he tells you, ecstatically, when he meets you on the boulevards is "the greatest place on earth," and he adds, as evidence of the truth of this, that he has not slept in three weeks. He is unsurpassed in his omnivorous capacity for sight-seeing, and in his ability to make himself immediately and contentedly at home.

The American visitor is not only undaunted by the strange language, but unimpressed by the signs of years of vivid history about him. He sandwiches a glimpse at the tomb of Napoleon, and a trip on a penny steamer up the Seine, and back again to the Morgue, with a rush through the Cathedral of Notre Dame, between the hours of his breakfast and the race-meeting at Longchamps the same afternoon. Nothing of present interest escapes him, and nothing bores him. He assimilates and grasps the method of Parisian existence with a rapidity that leaves you wondering in the rear, and at the end of a week can tell you that you should go to one side of the Grand Hôtel for cigars, and to the other to have your hat blocked. He knows at what hour Yvette Guilbert comes on at the Ambassadeurs', and on which mornings of the week the flower-market is held around the Madeleine. While you are still hunting for apartments he has visited the sewers under the earth, and the Eiffel Tower over the earth, and eaten his dinner in a tree at Robinson's, and driven a coach to Versailles over the same road upon which the mob tramped to bring Marie Antoinette back to Paris, without being the least impressed by the contrast which this offers to his own progress. He develops also a daring and reckless spirit of adventure, which would never have found vent in his native city or town, or in any other foreign city or town. It is in the air, and he enters into the childish goodnature of the place and of the people after the same mariner that the head of a family grows young again at his class reunion.

The Château Rouge was originally the house of some stately family in the time of Louis XIV. They will tell you there that it was one of the mistresses of this monarch who occupied it, and will point to the frescos of one room to show how magnificent her abode then was. This tradition may or may not be true, but it adds an interest to the house, and furnishes the dramatic contrast to its present wretchedness.

Italian Staples Manzo bollito Pollo alla cacciatora


You'll invariably find, at the start of the menu, a collection of soups including pastina in brodo or tortellini in brodo or some other "in brodo" combination, which merely refer to various types of pasta served in a soup broth. Into it you sprinkle grated cheese, and the resulting combination makes an always satisfying first course.

The spaghetti dishes come next, either al pomodoro (with tomato sauce) or alla Bolognese or con carne (meat sauce) or al vongole (with clam sauce) or, best yet, alla carbonara (cooked in egg, with bits of bacon-delicious). Among the main courses, the term scallopine, followed by various words, always refers to slices of veal, cooked in various ways; while cotolette is almost always a breaded veal cutlet.
Saltimbocca is the famous veal-and-ham dish; bistecca is beefsteakj maiale indicates a pork dish; manzo a beef plate; pollo is chicken; ossobuco is shank of veal; fegato is liver. Among the other items, risotto indicates a rice dish, served alone or with various sauces and cassata is the name for ice-cream-and fruit. Among the adjectival food terms, filetto means filet (like filetto di sogliole-filet of sole); involtini indicates something that is rolled (like involtini di manzo-rolled beef); and salsa or sugo means sauce. Thus, spaghetti al sugo di carne is spaghetti with meat sauce.

Some recurring main courses:
Bracciola alla Milanese (fried veal chop)
Manzo bollito (boiled beef)
Pollo alla cacciatora (stewed chicken)
Spezzatino di manzo (beef stew) Vitello al forno (roast veal)

Olympic National Park

OLYMPIC NATIONAL PARK, an area of more than 900,000 acres in the center of the Olympic Peninsula, is a wilderness of virgin forests, precipitous canyons, and alpine meadows, from which emerge lofty mountain peaks with shining glaciers and vast snow fields. With the surrounding Olympic National Forest, the region is one of the few great areas of primeval beauty left in the United States, and its unique rain forests are as spectacular as the inchoate mass of its mountains.

In 1774, Juan Perez, a roving Spanish sea captain sailing up the coast, sighted the snowy pinnacles of the Olympics against a blazing blue summer sky. He named them Cerro de la Santa Rosalia, but this euphonious name was not destined to last; 14 years later Captain John Meares, in command of a British barkentine off the Washington coast, declared the mountains a fit home for the gods and named the highest peak Mount Olympus.

There seems to be no exact record of the first ascent of Mount Olympus. A report made in Steel Points, published at Portland, Oregon, in July 1907, states that Henry D. Cook and B. F. Shaw, members of a private exploring expedition, accompanied by two Indians, climbed the peak in July 1854. In the park superintendent's files is a sketch of one of the earliest expeditions into the park area; in 1890 a company of picked men, headed by young Lieutenant Joseph P. O'Neil, blazed their way from Hoodsport up past Lake Cushman and on up the North Fork of Skokomish River to the East Fork of the Quinault, enduring severe hardships as they forged through great forests where no trails existed.

The finest example of the magnificent rain forests are found in the lower valleys of the western slopes, where great stands of Douglas fir, western hemlock, western red cedar, and silver fir grow to gigantic size and height. Temperate climate, winter rainfall, and other conditions favor a tropic luxuriance in both trees and undergrowth. The fallen trunks of enormous trees become nourishment for seedlings that take root upon them, and thus new trees continually replace the old. Great festoons of moss hang from the towering trees, and the ground in some places is an almost impenetrable tangle of fern, vine maple, and other jungle-like growth.

The Olympic Mountains arise in their splendid confusion about the center of the park, encircled by a belt of evergreen forest 50 miles wide and more than 200 miles in circumference. Here are no ordered ranges, but instead a vast pile of rugged rock and snow-covered knifelike peaks, varying in elevation from 3,000 to 8,000 feet, the height of Mount Olympus. Numerous mountains that have been explored are nearly as high as Olympus, and there are others yet to be climbed and named. In places the mountainsides drop almost vertically for more than 3,000 feet, and from the tops of these sheer stone cliffs flow hundreds of filmy waterfalls fed by melting snows.

More than 50 glaciers, with approximately 36 square miles of ice and snow fields, drape the peaks, among them some of the largest and best-formed glaciers in the United States. Those on Olympus are particularly remarkable, one of the most interesting and beautiful being the Blue Glacier, which is really a clear blue. Here the climber, making his way over the rugged terminal moraine, may observe, wherever the bedrock is exposed, deep grooves in the striated surface, the marks of the glacier when it filled the valley to a lower altitude. On the upper glacier where the slope becomes steep, the ascent is made over fields of ice and snow and ledges of glaciated rock to vantage points alongside and above the rugged and picturesque ice-fall. From these points may be viewed the broadly sweeping curves of the medial and lateral moraines and lines of flow in the ice, the curves of the glacier high in the cirques or ice-pockets near the summit; and crowning all, too steep to retain a mantle of ice and snow, the cliffs, the knife-edge crests, and jagged pinnacles of rock that rise between and above the ice-pockets.

Upon nearly every high peak several glaciers are slowly grinding down the rugged sides; at the same time they are receding and forming rivers of ice, the headwaters for the principal streams in the park. Within this glacial field are yawning crevasses and great boulders shielding columns of ice from the summer sun; there are smaller rock fragments sunk in deep wells and pits beyond reach of sunlight; silvery streams of melted ice and snow, plunging from shallow channels into the deep roaring moulins or devil's cauldrons; and above are the lonely pinnacles of rock and ice.

Mount Rainier National Park

MOUNT RAINIER NATIONAL PARK, about 55 miles from Tacoma, comprises 368 square miles of rugged mountains, forested valleys beneath towering crags, moving glaciers melting into turbulent streams; of broad ice fields and flowered mountain meadows, great cirques, and crevasses; refuge for abundant wild life. Marking the approximate center is the glistening dome of Mount Rainier, third highest peak in continental United States (14,408 alt.); its base covers almost one-fourth of the park area. Seen from a distance the mountain seems to be isolated, its great height dwarfing the Cascade Range on the east and the other neighboring mountains; although these peaks and mountain ranges themselves average 6,000 to 8,000 feet in altitude. The mountain, unlike Mount Fujiyama, is a truncated cone, approximately 2,000 feet of its top having been lost through an eruption ages ago. That the peak at one time reached almost 16,000 feet is evident from the inclination of the slopes and lava strata. When the top was blown off, a vast cauldron more than three square miles in area was formed -- one of the great attractions of the mountain. In this cauldron two cinder cones developed, gradually grew together, and eventually rounded into the dome known as Columbia Crest, the highest point on the mountain, which rises 285 feet above the jagged rim of the snow and ice-filled crater. Next in height are Point Success (14,150 alt.) and Liberty Cap (14,112 alt.). Feeble volcanic action was reported as late as 1843, 1858, and 1870; relatively weak steam jets are still found on the heights, and there are various hot springs around the base.

Twenty-eight glaciers -- 16 of which have a downward flow -- cling to the sides of the mountain, forming one of the country's most extensive glacier systems, with a spread of approximately 48 square miles. The six great primary glaciers, Nisqually, Ingraham, Cowlitz, Emmons, Tahoma, and Kautz, originate in the summit névé; the five secondary glaciers are born in snow-filled cirques at levels between 12,000 and 10,000 feet. Between these major ice flows, which average from 4 to 6 miles in length, are found 17 smaller ice fields or interglaciers. As the glaciers have melted back -- the average recession is 70 feet per year -weathering has broken down the harsh canyon walls, so that the valleys below them broaden out and merge with the tablelands of the lower wedges. Here in high valleys and tablelands are found the great alpine meadows with their riot of wild flowers.

Within the park the Transition Zone, characterized by heavy forest growths of Douglas fir, western hemlock, red cedar, and scatterings of maple, alder, western yew, and black cottonwood, reaches to elevations found at all the entrances and even as far as Longmire Springs, White River camp, and Ipsut Creek on the Carbon River road. Ferns, devil'sclub, and skunk cabbage form rank growths; dogwood, trillium, white clintonia, and twinflower grow in abundance. The great forests provide a haven for black bear and many other animals. The band-tailed pigeon, northern spotted owl, western winter wren, and the Cooper chipmunk are frequently seen.

The Canadian Zone, merging into the Hudsonian above and the Transition below, is the least distinct of all the park zones; yet certain points, such as Narada Falls on the Nisqually Road, Yakima Park on the east, Mowich Lake on the northwest, and the glacier termini may be taken as arbitrarily marking its upper limits. The forests here, though dense, have smaller trees, of which the western white pine is the most common, with Noble fir, spruce, Alaska yellow cedar, and western hemlock. One of the picturesque plants is the goatsbeard moss, which forms great festoons on the trees. Undergrowth is thinner, and such plants as red and blue huckleberries, rhododendron, kinnikinnick, everlasting, and minulus flourish. The whistling marmot, Pacific beaver, varying hare, mantled ground squirrel, water ouzel, American black bear, Columbian black-tailed deer, and mountain beaver (aplodontia) are relatively common in both Transition and Canadian zones.

At the upper edge of the forest belt and extending to the timber line, is the Hudsonian Zone, supporting such hardy trees as the mountain hemlock, alpine fir, and white-barked pine under favorable conditions. Pre-eminently the zone of flowered alpine meadows, which carry right up around the glaciers, this area is one of the most scenic in the park, generally most colorful during July and August. Some 300 species of flowers occur in this zone alone, of which the more noteworthy are the heathers, the glacier and avalanche lilies, valerian, Indian basket grass, Indian paintbrush, western anemone, speedwells, asters, lupines, and buttercup. In this zone the Clark's nutcracker is the most common bird, but the sooty grouse, the pine siskin, rufous hummingbird, and bluebird are also numerous. The cony, pack rat, marmot, jumping mouse, weasel, and pine marten are encountered frequently.

The Arctic-Alpine Zone extends from the timber line toward the summit. In this region of wind-swept wastes and pumice fields, plant and animal life is limited to the most hardy, but the region presents a broad and interesting variety of herbaceous plants, among which are lupine and phlox and various saxifrages and grasses. A few junipers and arctic willow are found in sheltered locations. This zone is the habitat of the white mountain goat, the Rainier white-tailed ptarmigan, the pipit, rosy finch, and the pine siskin. Among occasional visitors are the Cascade fox, coyote, marmot, weasel, and marten; the juncos, hawks and eagles.

Everett Washington

EVERETT (30 alt.), county seat of Snohomish County, lumbering center, seaport, and distributing point for a fertile agricultural and dairying area, lies on a promontory between the sluggish Snohomish River, with its muddy delta, on the cast and north, and Port Gardner Bay, an arm of Puget Sound, on the west.

In the business district, near the center of the city, substantial middleaged buildings border broad avenues that run east-west across a ridge extending southward from the river to the high bluffs of Rucker Hill.

Noticeable among the older structures are a few newer, more modern buildings. On the hill and along the bayside to the north are attractive residences, surrounded by broad, close-clipped lawns, brightened in season by daffodils, rows of irises, blossoming shrubs, roses in profusion, beds of flaming gladioli, and golden autumn leaves; even the sombreness of winter is broken by the sheen of laurel leaves and the orange and red berries of thorn and holly. Between these residential districts and the business and industrial areas are scattered sections where the mass of the population lives.

The industrial life of the city centers in the area along the bayside and the river front. Here, fringing the city, are factories and mills with their stacks and burners, smoking volcanoes by day and glowing infernos by night. Except when a holiday or curtailed production brings a temporary lull, the air reverberates with the whine of saws, the strident blasts of whistles, the hiss of steam, and the clank of wheels as engines shunt cars of freight on the sidings.

Moored along the docks are freighters, their strong booms swinging incoming cargo to the docks and outgoing cargo, mostly lumber and lumber products, to the decks and into the holds. Quickly the gangs of longshoremen load and unload the slings, expertly using their claw-like hooks, and alert to the hazards of snapping cables and shifting cargo. Trucks rumble over the docks, which vibrate on supporting pilings. Dotting the bay are numerous pleasure craft, trawlers, sturdy tugs with rafts of logs in tow, and rowboats, in which fishermen drift for hours with the tide or row, face forward, with the peculiar skill and ease acquired only through years of practice.

The prevailing westerly winds are usually brisk and occasionally become gales that whip the slate-gray waters of the bay into whitecaps. Sometimes a pall of fog settles over the area, and then foghorns moan their warnings to shipping. The salt air is charged with the pungent odor of seaweed from the brine-soaked tidelands, the resinous tang of newly cut lumber and of smoke from the burning slabs and sawdust, the clean odor of tar from nets and creosoted pilings, and the musty smell of rotting logs, heavy with barnacles. At night the low, musical throb of Diesel engines and the impatient chugging of gasoline motors float across the water, or the whistle of a train, clear and resonant, echoes through the moisture-laden air.

Here is registered the heartbeat of Everett. When mills and factories are running and wages are steady, customers crowd the local stores, bills are paid, houses are painted or re-shingled, and old cars are exchanged for new ones. But when the pulse is weakened by curtailed production and consequent unemployment, not only does local business diminish, but the neighboring farming area, which finds a market for its produce in the city, also suffers.

The first white man to leave a record of discovery of the bay along which rise today the smokestacks of Everett was Captain George Vancouver, whose ship furled its sails at Possession Sound on June 4, 1792; he took possession for Britain, changing the name of the entire region from New Albionto New Georgia, in honor of King George III. Two other place names commemorate Vancouver's visit: Port Gardner Bay and Port Susan.

Bellingham Washington

BELLINGHAM (sea level to 640 alt.), port of call 18 miles south of the Canadian Border, industrial and educational center, and distribution point for northwestern Washington, borders the broad curve of Bellingham Bay, sweeps back over the level valleys of Whatcom, Squalicum, and Padden creeks, and climbs the slopes of Sehome Hill, which rises practically in the middle of the city. Industrial life is concentrated along the water front, where squarely massed warehouses, coal bunkers, and piers are punctuated with the black smokestacks of mills and factories, harsh against the green hills. Moored at the docks are large, ocean-going freighters, sturdy cannery tenders, numerous small fishing boats, and trim pleasure craft. From the bayside, streets radiate into the business and residential areas, which mingle in a casual manner as a result of the merging of four separate boom towns in the formation of Bellingham.

To the west are the San Juan Islands and the interlaced ribbons of sounds and straits; more distant are the white-tipped Olympics, remote and austere, and the dark bulk of Vancouver Island, visible only on clear days. Stretching eastward from the city for 40 miles are broad fertile valleys, once unbroken evergreen forest but now largely logged off and converted into dairy farms, truck gardens, pastures, berry fields, and poultry ranches. Higher areas between the lowlands are covered with second-growth timber, interspersed with charred or bleaching stumps and fallen logs. Gradually the foothills become more rugged as they ascend toward the serrated line of the Cascades, from which rise the snow-capped peaks of Mount Baker and the Three Sisters.

From this extensive area of land and water, Bellingham has drawn sustenance: salmon for canneries, cedar and fir and hemlock logs to supply the lumber mills, and coal to feed furnaces and fill the holds of freighters. The pace of exploitation of these natural resources has been rapid; a brief half-century has seen them in a large measure depleted, so that today the prosperity of the city is becoming increasingly dependent upon the agrarian pursuits of the back country and upon the canning and processing of farm produce.

The mild climate of the region is favorable to the development of agriculture. Autumn months are temperate, with alternate rain and fog and bright, sunshiny days. Occasionally a cold, raw gale howls down from the mountains, and the city awakens in the morning heavily blanketed with snow. Now and then a sudden shift of the wind to the north converts the melting snow to a silver sheath of ice. Blustery winds sometimes sweep moisture-laden clouds up the Strait and dash them against the mainland. Then streams swirl in fury at their banks, lowlands are flooded, and the unsupported earth of steep hillsides, undermined by water, begins to slide on the clay hardpan.

Spring comes early. By March, meadows and pasture lands have lost the sallow tinge of winter, and soon the grass becomes lush and green. Throughout the mild summer, when temperatures seldom reach 90° Fahrenheit, and late into the fall, dairymen find ample pasturage for their herds, no inconsiderable factor in the growth of the dairying industry.

The earliest exploration of this part of the northwest coast was by Francisco Eliza, who in 1791 sent a small ship into the bay and, according to Spanish charts, named it Seno de Gaston. In 1792, Captain George Vancouver, who was exploring the Straits of Georgia, sent a small party under Joseph Whidbey to chart the southern shoreline. Upon receiving the report of the surveying party, Vancouver named the large protected body of water Bellingham Bay, in honor of Sir William Bellingham.

More than 50 years passed before white men again turned their attention to this immediate area, for during the first half of the nineteenth century the United States and Great Britain centered the struggle for possession along the Columbia River, and largely in the diplomatic field. The settlement of the boundary question in 1846, fixing the line at 49° North latitude, served to release colonizing energies. On December 15, 1852, Captain Henry Roeder, son of a German immigrant and formerly a captain on a Great Lakes schooner, and Russell V. Peabody left California and made their way northward, planning to start a salmon cannery or a sawmill. Finding that Henry Yesler's mill adequately supplied the little settlement on the Duwamish, Roeder and Peabody continued to Port Townsend, where they embarked in an Indian canoe for Bellingham Bay.

Aberdeen and Hoquiam

ABERDEEN (365 alt.) and HOQUIAM (300 alt.), originally settlements four miles apart, have grown into a single population center, divided only by Myrtle Street. In an atmosphere hazy with smoke from mill stacks and burners, these twin cities spread along Grays Harbor and the tidal waters of the three rivers flowing into it: Aberdeen lies at the confluence of the Chehalis and the Wishkah Rivers; Hoquiam borders the banks of the Hoquiam River.

Both cities face Grays Harbor, whose entrance, 12 miles westward, is often blanketed by the fog or rainfall characteristic of the region. The industrial area of both cities stretches along the water front. Here are numerous sawmills, with their sheds, yards, and loading docks. Stacks of freshly cut lumber diffuse through the streets the pungent odor of fir cedar, and hemlock. Straddle-legged lumber carriers, motor driven, roll swiftly about the yards. Large cranes swing arms laden with lumber from the yard to the deck of a ship berthed against the wharf. From the mill comes the shrill whine of high-speed saws and the muffled thunder of a huge log as it is hurled about on a rushing saw-carriage by the iron kick of the mechanical "nigger." Over the acres of roofs covering mills and woodworking plants, jets of live steam escape in white plumes, and here and there a tall stack pencils a drifting pattern of smoke against the sky.

Together, Aberdeen and Hoquiam were born of lumber, and through it chiefly have they lived. Aberdeen, the larger of the cities, with compact blocks of substantial office buildings, stores, hotels, garages, and theaters along Wishkah Street, the main thoroughfare, has the appearance of a small metropolis. North of the business section, the terrain rises to the higher ground of the residential area until it reaches the heights of Bel-Aire, which, with its fine homes, is the social as well as the topographic apex of the city. Here a panoramic view of the city and Grays Harbor may be had, with Chehalis Point Lighthouse at the entrance, and a glimpse of the rolling Pacific to the west.

On the border of the planked streets fringing the mills and factories, are "crackerbox" buildings whose shoddy rooming houses, pool halls, beer parlors, and shops cater to workingmen. In East and South Aberdeen, where most of the mill workers live, national origins are reflected in the Swedish cottages and in the octagonal-shaped Finnish houses with their many windows. Here, too, still stand a few old farmhouses, with soot-encrusted shingles and weather-beaten sides.

Hoquiam, reached through Aberdeen, is situated on deep water at the mouth of the Hoquiam River, 12 miles from the Pacific Ocean. Pioneer settlement of the Grays Harbor region, it is the elder of the two cities. In economy, industrial development, and general character, it is much like its sister city. West of the river the streets, starting at the water front, run diagonally through the business area until they join with the east-west avenues. To the north is a residential area, dominated by Hoquiam Heights. East of the river, streets run from the flats of the water front up to the heights of Campbell Hill.

The two cities have separate municipal governments, but, since they act jointly in many administrative matters, and are so largely interdependent industrially and socially, it has become difficult to speak of one without mentioning the other. Together, they represent the culture and industry of the Grays Harbor district, a territory which, walled in by one of the heaviest stands of timber in the Pacific Northwest, by mountains and hills on three sides, and by the Pacific Ocean on its entire western length, was once almost unapproachable except by water.

Washington Fishing, Hunting, Boating

Whether a stream wader, a lake fisher, or a salt-water enthusiast, the angler will find sport to suit his taste in Washington. Cutthroat and rainbow trout flash in the rivers; lake trout include Eastern brook, Dolly Varden, and Mackinaw, and the Beardslee trout of Lake Crescent (see Tour 3A), said not to be found elsewhere. Other fish rising to bait in fresh water are bass, perch, chub, catfish, and crappie. Sturgeon are caught in the larger rivers -- the Columbia, Snake, and Clark Fork. State hatcheries annually stock streams and lakes.

Salmon fishing, one of the leading outdoor sports, is followed by both the expert and the novice. Spinning and trolling are popular methods in catching the silver, the king, and other varieties. A light rod with drag reel is used in spinning, with a medium-test line and leads, depending upon the tide. Trolling is practiced in a powered or oared boat, with a heavy-test line from 600 to 900 feet in length.

Annual salmon derbies are held in a number of Puget Sound cities. Women as well as men enter these events, which begin in the spring and continue through the summer months.

The hunter seeking big game will find bear, cougar, and deer in the mountainous country. In deer season, the bag is limited to one buck; the law also forbids slaying a doe and the use of dogs. The mule deer, averaging 140 pounds dressed, is found on nearly all the islands of Puget Sound; the larger whitetail, dressing from 250 to 300 pounds, roams the Cascades. Herds of Roosevelt elk (wapiti) range the Olympic National Park, one of the three abodes in the country for this species. Complaints by farmers of elks' raids on crops, coupled with alleged deterioration of the species from overcrowding, have moved the State game commission to permit a short open season. The Olympic area is the haunt also of predatory animals, including the savage mountain lion (cougar).

The uplands of eastern Washington afford grouse, pheasant, and quail, while the best duck hunting is found in the marshes, sloughs, and lowlands west of the Cascades.

Puget Sound is ideal for boating, whether in the "flattie," the sailboat, or the expensive cruiser. Yacht clubs hold cruises and competitions throughout the year, featuring annual races from Seattle or Tacoma to British Columbia ports.

Washington Sports and Recreation

FAVORED by its size and natural setting, Washington offers almost unlimited opportunities to the sports lover and to those who seek recreation. Mountains, forests, lakes, streams, and ocean coastline, vast primitive areas, in some cases unexplored, appeal to the most hardy seeker of wilderness trails and offer opportunity for every form of outdoor activity.

On the other hand, the sports enthusiast who does not care for untamed country, and the possible attendant discomforts, can find modern recreational facilities in attractive settings. While comparatively new as a State, Washington has golf courses, tennis courts, and athletic clubs, particularly in the larger urban centers, that vie with the finest anywhere. The first golf club in the Pacific Coast States is said to be the one organized at Tacoma in 1894. Now there are 65 wellmaintained courses in the State: 15 private, and 50 open to the public.

Those who prefer a spectator's role may witness the unusual sight of Indians paddling war canoes in intertribal competition (see Tour 2C), lumberjacks in log-rolling contests, and hard-riding stalwarts "fanning" pitching mounts or roping steers at Old West rodeos. Football, basketball, hockey, soccer, crew, and automobile and motorboat racing are enjoyed in season. Professional boxing and wrestling bouts, frequently of championship caliber, are staged in Seattle and other cities; two of organized baseball's minor leagues -- the Pacific Coast and the Western International -- offer both day and night games; and there are several city leagues.

Horse racing is perhaps the oldest known sport in the State. Long before the arrival of white pioneers, the Yakima Indians of eastern Washington ran their ponies. In Snowden History of Washington is a reference to early horse racing: "During treaty negotiations ( 1855) by Governor Isaac Stevens a holiday was suggested by Young Chief, one of the Cayuses' main men and a day was set aside for horse racing . . . in which the delighted and the utmost good feeling prevailed." The typical Indian track was a straightaway, with a post at one end, around which the racers turned and headed back for the starting point. As they neared the finish, the mounts were occasionally "helped in" by frenzied backers, who rode alongside and plied whips. The sport continues today on the Yakima Reservation. Blankets, shawls, clothing, saddles, feed, money, and mounts are staked on the results.

Washington's mountain ranges and high peaks have lured venturesome climbers and explorers since early Territorial days. The first organized group of mountaineers were the Mazamas, of Portland, formed in 1894. Under the sponsorship of the Mazamas, the Mountaineers came into being in 1906. During the initial decade of organization, the Mountaineers climbed the State's principal peaks and constructed two rustic lodges; in 1921, after repeated efforts had failed, they obtained legislation for State parks.

The Cascade Crest Trail, beginning at the Canadian Border and extending to the Columbia River without leaving the confines of a national forest, has been well marked by the Forest Service; it follows the hump of the Cascades the entire length of the State. Information on sports and recreation centers is furnished by sportinggoods stores, chambers of commerce, and outdoor associations (see General Information). For the visitor to recreation areas, Washington has one admonition: "Remember the fire hazard." Regulations concerning entry to national parks and forests should be observed carefully and fire permits obtained where necessary.

In winter and spring, when the snow is deepest, Washington's mountains are thronged with skiing devotees. Countless lakes, streams, and extensive reaches of salt water have made Washington a mecca for fishermen; rugged heights, sagebrush plains, broad wildernesses, and logged-off territory attract the hunters of big and small game. Before 1932, however, the control and regulation of game by counties resulted in laws so inconsistent and confusing that depletion of game through lack of conservation measures was imminent. Uniform game laws and enforcement have given protection to wild life without necessarily curbing the sportsman. Virtually every city and town has its sportsmen's group, affiliated with a State or national organization, which aids the State game commission in determining the opening and closing of seasons so as to give the maximum of protection to game.

Washington History, Bartolome Ferrelo, Captain James Cook

The exploits of Columbus inspired the Old World maritime powers to feverish activity during the sixteenth century. When it had become apparent that two continents lay between Europe and the Orient, a race began for discovery and control of the shortest water route through or around them. Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama, and Magellan led the way through the strait that bears his name. Meanwhile, incomplete and inaccurate information obtained by other explorers suggested the existence of a navigable waterway across the upper half of North America. For almost three centuries, European naval powers sought this Northwest Passage, or Strait of Anian.

Imperial Spain was foremost in the quest. In 1542, Bartolome Ferrelo, commanding a Spanish expedition sent northward along the coast of what is now California to look for the passage's western opening, sighted the coast of what is now southern Oregon.

In 1578 Francis Drake sailed to the Northwest coast and named the land New Albion. Apostolos Valerianos allegedly a Greek pilot. under the name of Juan de Fuca, claimed that in 1592 he entered a broad inlet between the 47th and 48th degrees of north latitude. His story was published in an English book ( Purchas, his Pilgrimes, 1625). but no facts concerning his Northwest voyage have been verified. Nevertheless, his Spanish name -- Juan de Fuca -- was later given to the strait between the Olympic Peninsula and Vancouver Island.

During the seventeenth century, no noteworthy additions to geographical knowledge of the Northwest resulted from attempts to find the passage. In 1670, Charles II of England granted a charter to "The Company of Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson's Bay," with instructions to work for "the discovery of a new passage into the South Seas, and for the finding of some trade in furs and other considerable commodities." The company was given a monopoly on trade in regions not ruled by "Christian Princes."

Early in the eighteenth century, Peter the Great of Russia announced his intention of taking over all territory in North America not actually occupied by other powers. Catherine, his successor, sent the Dane, Vitus Bering, on two expeditions in North Pacific waters. Bering discovered the inter-continental strait that now bears his name, explored and charted the Aleutian Archipelago, and coasted along the Alaskan mainland; but, when he died in 1741 on Bering Island, he still believed Alaska to be an island separated from the mainland by the Northwest Passage. Russia's first permanent settlement in Alaska was made in 1784, and important trading interests and other colonies were established between that year and 1863.

France, at no time a serious contender for territory in the Northwest, was definitely eliminated by England in the Treaty of Paris, 1763. For 30 years thereafter the struggle was between Spain and England, with Russia holding the region now known as Alaska. Spain strengthened her claims by expeditions first along the coast and later into Juan de Fuca Strait. In 1774, Juan Perez sighted a mountain ( Mount Olympus), which he called Santa Rosalia. Bruno Heceta and Juan de la Bodega landed near Point Grenville in 1775, and claimed the land for Spain. It is believed that Heceta saw what is now called the Columbia River, without recognizing it as the "River of the West" so long sought.

Captain James Cook, commanding an English expedition with instructions to search for the Northwest Passage and lay claim for England to any unoccupied lands he might discover, sighted land off the Umpqua on March 7, 1778, and proceeded to Nootka Sound, where he spent a month. He was quite painstaking in charting the coast lines north of Juan de Fuca, but the Strait itself escaped his notice.

The North Pacific voyage of the great French navigator, La Perouse, in 1785, was recorded in his journal, but, by the time the record was published in 1787, his discoveries were common knowledge among seamen. Now came the captains of the great fur-trade era, like the later gold rush to California. In 1787, Captain Charles William Barkley, an Englishman, found and named the passage now known as Juan de Fuca Strait. Barkley gave directions for finding the Strait to John Meares, once a lieutenant in the British Navy, who was preparing for a trading voyage along the Northwest coast. Early in the following year, Meares and another English trader, William Douglas, flying both the Union Jack and the Portuguese flag, joined in the rush for furs that replaced the search for the Northwest Passage.

Washington Indians

American history written in terms of the white man is a story of his triumphant march westward, clearing the land, breaking the sod, draining swamplands, and setting up frontier settlements, which quickly developed into sprawling towns, or sometimes into bustling cities. For the Indian, however, this never-ceasing advance into his lands has meant the end of his way of life. From the moment of the first encroachment upon his preserves and the enforced contacts with white men -- at first with trappers and fur traders and later with other occupational groups -- the breakdown of Indian culture was inevitable. This included the alteration and disarrangement of his economic and linguistic forms, and adjustment to the life imposed upon him by the unyielding and ruthless intruders. The process of acculturation still goes on, and it is apparent that, when the informed remnant of the old Indian line has departed, the native culture and its unrecorded native lore will be forever lost. In comparatively recent years, however, there has been an awakened interest in the Indian, and scientific ethnological and archeological study has been undertaken to preserve for future generations a true record of the first Americans and their culture.

Archeological research in the State of Washington has merely scratched the surface, only a few studies having been made of the early cultural remains found in the Yakima River Basin and the Puget Sound region. In all probability, prehistoric people made the pictographs and petroglyphs found in eastern Washington and along the Columbia River. The origins, functions, and meanings of these picture writings and rock carvings are still a matter of conjecture, and they are not explained either by the Indians or by anthropologists and archeologists. Studies do indicate, however, that the culture of the early peoples did resemble to some extent that of historic Indians. These researches, moreover, have furnished additional evidence to support the theory of the Asiatic origin of the Indian. Remains of later periods are much more numerous, and considerable progress is being made in collecting and preserving them.

The best collection of Indian archeological and ethnological material in Washington is in the State Museum, University of Washington campus, Seattle. Among the items are baskets, drums, carvings, clothing, tools, and various weapons. In several towns in central and eastern Washington are smaller collections made by individual members of the Columbia River Archeological Society, with headquarters in Wenatchee. The State Historical Society Museum, located in Tacoma, has a fairly large collection. Museums in the East, notably the American Museum of Natural History, in New York City, and the Smithsonian Institution, in Washington, D.C., also display collections of Indian objects from the State.

On the basis of culture traits, the Indians of Washington may be divided into two major groups, one comprising those bands east of the Cascade Range, and the other those west of it. The sharp cultural differences that developed between these groups arose in large measure from the barrier to intercourse formed by these lofty mountains. Contributing also to the formation of distinctive culture patterns was the sharp contrast in the physical character and climatic conditions of the two areas. East of the Cascades, in the semiarid plateaus and grasslands of the Columbia River system, considerable cultural similarity existed. West of the Cascades as well, from British Columbia south to the Umpqua River in Oregon, native cultures were sufficiently homogeneous to permit this region to be regarded as a single culture area. Within this coastal area, sub-areas are discernible, such as the Makah and the Puget Sound groups to the north and the Chinook along the Columbia.

Cultural diffusion did take place, however, as evidenced in the development of the Chinook jargon, a kind of trade language. This language, in its basic content the Chinook tongue, was formed by accretion of corrupted words from native groups who traded together, plus words later added by the whites. It arose from intertribal communication and the demand for a medium of communication in exchange and barter. It finally became the trade language used by the natives throughout the Northwest in their dealings with the whites.

Frequently northern Indians, from the region that is now British Columbia and southeastern Alaska, journeyed south in their war canoes, through the protected Inland Passage, to attack the Puget Sound Indians for the purpose of capturing slaves; and these onslaughts resulted in a transfer of culture. Some interchange also took place between inhabitants of the Columbia River region and those of the Rocky Mountain and Plains areas.

Washington Forests, The Columbia River

Forests conserve water for irrigation, prevent soil erosion and floods, and maintain the purity of drinking-water sources. Standing timber also serves as a sanctuary for birds and game and furnishes summer range for cattle, horses, and sheep. In the past, these resources suffered from the "cut-up-and-get-out" logging methods employed. Present conservation programs, however, are aimed at safeguarding, through planned use, what is left of the State's forests and, ultimately, in restoring some of the lost woodlands.

Seven national forests lie wholly in Washington, and two others partly in Washington, Idaho, and Oregon. To the west, mainly in the high Cascade region, are the Mount Baker, Snoqualmie, Wenatchee, Chelan, Columbia, and Olympic national forests. In the northeastern section is Colville National Forest and, farther east and extending into Idaho, the Kaniksu National Forest. From the extreme southeastern quarter of the State, Umatilla National Forest extends into Oregon.

The Columbia River, 1,210 miles in length, is the largest stream west of the Rockies and drains an area of 259,000 square miles. At Grand Coulee it has an average volume of about 109,000 cubic feet per second. As a whole, the river is capable of generating more than 8,000000 horsepower in a possible total of 145 plants along the main stream and tributaries. In its course through the State the Columbia has a total fall of about 1,300 feet.

With the Columbia and many smaller rivers dammed by power and irrigation projects, fish were prevented from reaching upriver spawning grounds. Here, too, fruitful remedies have been devised. At Bonneville Dam elaborate fish ladders and locks were constructed, and a daily count was taken of the various species passing over them. Refrigerated, air-conditioned tank trucks remove the salmon trapped below Coulee Dam to spawn elsewhere. Most species of salmon are at least holding their own, except the Chinook, which still appears to be decreasing. In the Columbia River district alone, however, many millions of Chinook eggs are taken annually for artificial hatching.

Washington Plant Life

The narrow fringe of ocean shore, the humid western slopes between the Cascades and the coast, the towering mountain ranges, the Columbia Basin with its extremes of summer and winter temperatures, and the intermontane plateaus -- each region has its distinctive flora. And in each, climatic and topographic factors have influenced the number of species and the abundance or rarity of flowers of the various species. More than 3,000 species are found. Among the native plants are some of the rarest specimens: Flett's violet and the exquisite Piper bluebell of the mountain tops, the phantom orchid of the deep Woods, the delicate rock pink of the Columbia Basin, and the sea rose of the coastal waters.

Conspicuous among marine plants are numerous algae, varying from blue-green to brown and red. Of this group the most common is the floating kelp with its brown-bulbed whip. The sea rose, rarest and most complex of the red algae, is found in its branched form, native only to the western coast of North America and the northeastern coast of Asia. Two species of eelgrass also grow here; one in exposed tidal waters, the other in protected marshes. Marine lichens and fungi of various kinds abound along the coast.

In season, even the sand dunes are abloom with sturdy plants. To windswept wastes cling the delicately fragrant yellow and pink abroma or sand verbena and the saltbush with pale, scurvied leaves; sand strawberries, beach pea, and blue, yellow, and purple lupine advance upon the rippling dunes, wherever some slight protection is afforded by driftwood or rock or hummock of solid earth. Fennel, spurrey, ruppia, willow, and the yellow-blossomed sneezeweed grow in rank profusion about the salt marshes.

Above the dunes and beaches along the littoral runs a narrow band of Sitka spruce, also called tideland spruce, a tree of great commercial importance. Douglas fir, a species forming the greater part of the stand in the rain belt between salt-water shores and the Cascade Mountains, is tall and stately, of great strength, comparative lightness, and straight grain. First reported by Archibald Menzies at Nootka Sound in 1792, it was known as Oregon pine until named in honor of David Douglas, who introduced it into Europe in 1827. Other conifers are the western hemlock, known for its size, drooping branches, and gracefully tapering trunk; western red, Port Orford, and Alaska cedars; and, in the mountains, the six-leaved pine and the silver, white, and noble firs. Winter and summer, these forests keep their green ranks closed against the winds, their moss-hung boughs blotting out the sun. Today, wilderness roads wind between the green walls made by these ancient forest giants, whose branches, interlacing overhead, sough and murmur in vagrant winds. Seen from an elevated vantage point, seemingly miles of dark-green brushy tips cover the valley floors and sweep up the mountain slopes, staggering as they near the rocky summits. Scattered through the coniferous forests at the lower levels is the madrona, with its red-skinned trunk, classed as an evergreen because its new leaves have formed by midsummer, when the old ones fall.

In most of the forested areas of lower altitudes are several deciduous species. Common among these is the big-leaf maple, usually found as an incidental tree growing in clumps or singly among the conifers. In bright contrast to the evergreens is the vine maple, so called because of the sprawling appearance of its weak and crooked stems. In the spring, its leaves are a gorgeous rose red; in the fall, reddish yellow or bright scarlet. Other hardwoods are the red alder, one of the first species to take possession of burned or cut-over land; the black cottonwood, found only at lower elevations in coastal regions; the Oregon white, or Garry, oak; the western yew, the California myrtle, and the Oregon ash. Most spectacular is the western dogwood, easily recognized in spring by the button-like clusters of small, greenish-yellow flowers, surrounded by four to six snowy white, or slightly pink, saucer-like scales, popularly presumed to be petals of the real flower. Late in summer the foliage turns a brilliant scarlet and orange, and the small seed-like fruit becomes bright red; autumnal flowers are not uncommon. Abundant also are shrub-like hazel trees and Cascara-buckthorn trees, whose bark is used in making cascara sagrada.

Washington Land Animal Life

Land animal life is also unusually abundant here. Insects and bugs are relatively few in kind, although the State has its quota of the usual varieties. Outstanding among the invertebrates of eastern Washington are the warrior grasshopper, the coulee cricket, and the locust, and in the coastal regions the various pine-borers. The red ant, with its domelike hill, is common in dry pinewood areas. Most noteworthy of the butterflies is the swallowtail, largest of the western species, with double "tails" on each hind wing. Among the imported pests are the codling moth and the earwig. The tent caterpillar (larval stage of the moth) is often a destructive nuisance in western Washington. Except for the black widow spider, which is found now and then, and the wood tick, carrier in some instances of Rocky Mountain fever, there are no poisonous or disease-bearing insects. Among amphibians, the most numerous are the tree frog and the western wood frog. There are several varieties of the lizard, the salamander, and the toad; the horned toad, however, is rare. Turtles are represented west of the Cascades by the terrapin, and east of the mountains by the western painted turtle. Snakes of various kinds are fairly numerous, notably the garter snake, the bull snake of the pine woods, and, in some parts of eastern Washington, the poisonous rattlesnake.

In the forests and mountains elk, deer, and bear are plentiful, and are frequently seen from the highways traversing timbered areas. Of especial interest is the Roosevelt elk, named in honor of Theodore Roosevelt, which is found within the State only in the Olympic Mountains and the Tatoosh Range. Largest of all wapiti, it is identified by its light color and massive spread of antlers. The mule deer and the Columbian black-tailed deer -- distinguished by its broad flat tail -are familiar to sportsmen. Though more rare, the mountain goat is increasing in number under protective laws.

Larger predatory animals have been almost exterminated by hunters seeking State bounties. The Canadian lynx, red western bobcat, timber wolf, and red fox are seldom seen. The coyote, once widely prevalent, has retreated into the foothills in depleted numbers. Strangely enough, it is the mountain lion or cougar, upon whose head there has long been a price, that remains numerous, though he is encountered only in remote places.

Among lesser native mammals are several species of the shrew, mole, bat, western fisher, and weasel; and racoon, skunk, badger, marten, and mink are plentiful. The beaver, almost exterminated, is now returning. The Washington and Cascade varying hares, the white-tailed rabbit, and that little cave dweller, the cony or rock rabbit, belong to a family of rodents. Strangest of the lesser mammals is the shrew mole, who, combining the features of both shrew and mole but related to neither, has an ancestry going back to some remote Asiatic strain. Other common rodents are the squirrels, chipmunks, woodchucks, porcupine, and gophers. Several are of special interest: the mantled ground squirrel, the Cascade flying squirrel, the strange mountain beaver (not a beaver), who burrows in wet hillsides and is found only in the western part of Washington and Oregon; and the largest of the rodents, the marmot, noted for his whistling.

As might be expected in such an extensively wooded region, perching birds are numerically great, constituting two-fifths of the entire bird life. Members of this order are, in general, small in size, with the exception of the raven. The 18 familes represented include the crow, blackbird, and sparrow, as well as many colorful birds and attractive singers: the tanager, warbler, lark, pipit, thrush, kinglet, titmouse, creeper, wren and thrasher, dipper, swallow, waxwing, shrike, vireo, and flycatcher. The crows are the most intelligent of this group; the chattering sparrows, particularly the gambrel sparrow, is the most often seen; and the golden-crowned kinglet is the most numerous. Among curious birds are the chat, the great mimic; and such finely costumed creatures as the lazuli bunting, the western tanager, the rare purple martin, the violet-green swallow and the crested gray-brown waxwing, the dainty water ouzel, and the rough-winged swallow with hooked wingtips. The most tuneful songbirds are the western lark, the blackheaded grosbeak, the gold warbler with his silken black Cap, and Audubon's warbler. Washington has chosen the willow goldfinch as its State bird.

Most of the perching birds are hardy. The varied thrush particularly loves the rain; the wren, kinglet, bushtit, chickadee, and Sitkan kinglet are evident in flurried throngs throughout the winter.

Weak feet and powerful wings mark the insect eaters, such as the swifts and the humming birds. Gaudy as are all the hummers, the most resplendent is the calliope with its emerald-green back and rose or purple gorget. Though less colorful, the swifts are extraordinarily graceful in flight.

The brilliant red coloration of the climbers and their unmistakable tapping play a vivid part in the chorus of the woods; they vary in size from a species no bigger than a sparrow to one as large as a robin. The Harris's woodpecker, black and white of head, with body of scarlet and gray, is perhaps the most beautiful. The white-headed and the pileated woodpeckers are rare.

It was the rich animal life of Washington

It was the rich animal life of Washington that drew to the territory its first white inhabitants -- hunters, trappers, fishermen, and traders. Today, too, the State is renowned for its native fauna, especially for its game fish. The coastal waters contain five famous varieties of salmon: Chinook (king, tyee, or spring), large and game, which predominates in the Columbia River and its tributaries; sockeye (blueback), found in the Sound and the Strait and fresh water lakes; chum (dog), a lower grade fish; pink (humpback), and silver (coho). The quinnat salmon, noted for its delicacy and size, and of leading importance commercially, is a member of the king family.

Besides the salmon, several other migratory fish ascend Washington's rivers from the sea in breeding season; chief among these is the fighting steelhead, a large-sized rainbow trout. Two cutthroat trout are favorites of sportsmen: the coastal variety and the so-called Montana blackspotted trout. The blueback trout (salmo beardsleei) is found only in Lake Crescent, on the Olympic Peninsula. Also much sought are the silver trout, a fresh-water variety of sockeye, and the western spotted char, called the Dolly Warden trout. The squawfish, a predatory pike, is frequently found in lakes and streams; and the white sturgeon, of the Columbia, Snake, and Pend Oreille Rivers, largest fresh-water fish in North America, was once such a nuisance that an attempt was made to exterminate it. Species planted in Washington waters include the gamy largemouthed and smallmoutbed bass, the eastern brook trout (comparatively rare), and the mackinaw trout found in Spokane, Pend Oreille, and Stevens counties. Other importations now distributed on both sides of the Cascades are the spiny-rayed fish: perch, crappie, catfish, and sunfish.

Native salt-water fish are the halibut, now increasing in numbers; the albacore tuna, which have been taken in great numbers since 1936, when fishermen first went far out off the banks to catch them; the herring and the pilchard, used largely for oil, meal, and bait; the flounder; the red snapper; and the ling, the rock, and the black cod. Two varieties of eulachon are common: the Columbia River smelt, the heavy spring run of which draws hundreds of people to the Cowlitz River near Kelso; and the candlefish of Puget Sound, so called because the Indians used to dry it and burn it for light. The devilfish, or octopus, is also found in coastal waters; and the eel frequents some rivers, especially the Columbia.

These are some of Washington's food and game fish, but the list scarcely suggests the extent and variety of the State's marine fauna. Near the shore in shallow waters, tiny sponges and mussels cling to rocks and pilings, jellyfish pulse their way in search of food, starfish sometimes grow to unusual size, and sea anemones open and close at the slightest prod. Other forms inhabiting these grounds are sea urchins, limpets, chitons, whelks, segmented and flat worms, tube worms, periwinkles, and shell-less bronze and rose sea slugs. Among the shellfish are butter clams, the staple food of Puget Sound Indians, and still abundant today; razor clams of the ocean beaches, sought by tourists; the small Olympia oyster, famous for its flavor, and the rock oyster, both native to Washington waters, and the large Japanese oyster introduced here a few years ago, scallops with exquisitely fluted rose-tinted shells; and the geoduck, elusive and comparatively rare. Crabs of different sizes thrive in the sheltered pools and rocky coves along the many miles of coastal waters; and shrimp, small, firm, and flavorful, occur in considerable numbers in Hood Canal. Not to be overlooked are the common barnacles, which cling tenaciously to rocks, logs, and sea-going vessels.

Among oddities of the sea are the opalescent squid and the sea squirt, the latter a cylindrical, bag-like creature, tapering slightly at both ends, which attaches itself to rocks or shells and squirts water like a clam. The porpoise is not infrequently seen sporting in schools; and the hair seal, sometimes accompanied by the sea lion, also visits Puget Sound. The shark family is represented here by the mud shark, the more common dogfish not being a true shark. Even the whale leaves the deep waters now and then and detours into the blind alley of Puget Sound.

Washington Geology and Paleontology

During the period of gigantic mountain building millions of years ago, the ancient peak Mount Si was covered by the Cascades, but never has there been real conformity between the hard primeval rock and the younger volcanic formation. The younger rock slips from time to time, as some earth movement takes place, and the resultant tremendous jar is felt throughout the region.

In the Proterozoic era, the earliest of the four geologic divisions of time, long before the Cascades had risen, an embayment of the primeval sea covered most of the Pacific Northwest region. The Blue Mountains, in the extreme southeastern corner of the present State, have been described by some geologists as a rocky promontory extending into this arm of the sea. Some 300 or more miles to the west of the old coastline, south from what is now Washington, lay an island, or islands, the existence of which has led to the erroneous belief that another continent lay to the west of this one in prehistoric ages.

After hundreds of millions of years, with alternating periods of submersion and dry land, the region was invaded by the sea from the north, in the Paleozoic era. The depositing of silt from adjacent land areas and other natural processes resulted in the filling up of the original embayment to a maximum depth of 30,000 feet. Present deposits of quartz, slate, marble, and schist represent these ancient ones, but greatly altered in structure and recrystallized. Paleozoic rocks found in various places across northern Washington contain valuable fossil specimens of marine life of that period.

During the Mesozoic era, which probably lasted for more than 100,000,000 years, the essential features marking the existing topography were formed. It was during the latter part of this era (Jurassic period), according to John Hodgdon Bradley, that the original uplift of the Sierra Nevada, the Coast Range, the Cascades, and the Klamath Mountains occurred. Also in this period, another great inundation laid down beds of mud and sand that gradually were transformed into the bedrock of the San Juan Islands. Large deposits of magnesite, especially in Stevens County, probably originated at this time. With the making of mountains, great masses of molten rock pressed upward through the earth's crust, and gold, silver and other metals were fused with the rock while in this liquid state. As the Cascades first, and later the Coast Range, were formed, successively they made new coastlines, low-lying barriers to the ocean. The Mesozoic era, the age of reptiles, gave to the world some of its most curious life forms, including the giant dinosaurs; many of these have been unearthed on the San Juan Islands and in other parts of the State. Many marine specimens have been found in the shales and limestones of Stevens County.

The latest era, the Cenozoic, was marked by some of the most dynamic changes of all, including the greatest lava flow in geologic history and the age of ice; it also gave to the region some of its most productive natural resources -- rich soil left by extensive lava flows, the great rivers and bays taking shape during this period, and the rich deposits of coal and other minerals being laid down. Of this era, the last 2,000,000 years constitute the recent epoch, within which came great volcanic eruptions and the period of glaciation. The Tertiary period, enduring for more than 50,000,000 years, was marked by long periods of sedimentation, erosion, and vegetation, alternating with periods of immense volcanic activity.

The western part of the State, except for the highest, or central, part of the Olympic Mountains, was covered with water, and great swampy flats extended along the edge of the present Puget Sound Basin. From these were derived the shales and sandstones, the gold-bearing gravel of Sauk River, the commercial coal deposits. Gradually the see floor was raised, and the Olympics were united with the mainland. Volcanic action, accompanying the building of the Columbian Plateau, brought forth great streams of lava, covering more than 200,000 square miles (estimates vary) in present Washington, Idaho, and Oregon. The weight of hot plastic rock tended to wear away all but the highest bills and to force streams to seek new outlets, with the changing of the watershed. The Columbia River was forced from its old channel into its present one, cut through granitic slopes at the edge of the lava plain.

With the cessation of volcanic activity, in the long periods of sedimentation and erosion, many forms of animal and reptile life inhabited the region. Immense forests arose; petrified logs remain to indicate something of the size and type of these ancient trees. Gingko Petrified Forest was formed by the flow of lava over fallen gingko, trees; ground water creeping through the rock brought quantities of silica which, in the form of quartz, gradually took the place of the wood. Whole stone logs are found, some wonderfully and delicately colored, in the shape of the Asiatic gingko tree.

Toward the close of the Tertiary period, various plateaus and hills were formed -- the Badger Mountains and Waterville Plateau, prominent folds of the Frenchman Hills, and the Spokane Divide. Large basins were created, and the Yakima River cut its way through ridge after ridge, as each in turn arose.

The Quaternary (later Cenozoic) period was one of discordant events that completely changed the topography, producing marked climatic differences between eastern and western Washington. From a chain of vents along the line of the Cascade Mountains, volcanoes discharged great quantities of cinders and ash and exuded molten rock. Temporary cessations of the latter allowed incrusting materials, chiefly andesite, to build up great cones to form such peaks as Baker, St. Helens, Adams, and Rainier. The largest of these was the truncated mass of Mount Rainier. Active as late as the early part of this century and still steaming and emitting gases, this mountain once attained a height of more than 16,000 feet, only to lose 2,000 feet of its peak in an explosion. Other unrelated lava flows occurred at this time throughout the Cascade Mountains.

Later, as the climate turned colder, enormous glaciers slid down from the north to cover the upper part of the State. Elevations were greater than now. Puget Sound was dry. On the lofty Cascade Mountains and the major volcanic peaks, constant snows packed into glaciers that plowed down the slopes.

With a reversion to comparative warmth, melting ice sent debrisladen floods roaming over the Columbian plain, seeking or creating new channels as they rushed down the gradients caused by an earlier tilting. The abandoned rock-walled channels are today known as coulees. The Columbia River, much greater in volume than it is today, was blocked by the Okanogan Ice Lobe at the present site of Coulee Dam. The powerful stream, augmented by the run-off from adjacent and distant glaciers and the sudden draining of large lakes as far east as Montana, excavated a new channel. Abandoned when the retreating glacier allowed it to resume its former course, the old channel is now known as the Grand Coulee. A waterfall, one of the greatest in earth's history, thundered over the cliffs in what is today Dry Falls State Park.

A great lake, named by geologists Lewis Lake, and many minor bodies of water covered large areas of central and eastern Washington. The White Bluffs, 600 feet high and 30 miles long, on the Columbia River in Franklin, Grant, and Benton Counties, were created at this time. The force of the streams stripped sediments from the underlying lava, and these, transported southward, fill the fertile farming areas today. The denuded regions are the Channeled Scablands, more than 2,500 square miles of bare lava intricately channeled by ancient streams, now dry.

The shallow edges of the glaciers in the Puget Sound region, reaching as far south as Tenino, melted quickly, forming "mystery mounds" -- the hundreds of little hummocks and hills of that "mound prairie" region. Vast clay deposits, characteristic of Puget Sound topography south of Admiralty Inlet and Deception Pass, indicate a damming of the melting waters at these points. With the disappearance of the ice dams, the quick run off carved numerous valleys out of the sea bed. When the sea level rose again these became deep harbors and channels bordered by high cliffs.

Fossils found in central Washington beds tell of lush vegetation and abundant animal life -- temperate zone and subtropical flora and fauna -- maintained by the rich lava-formed soil. Fossilized leaves of fig, oak, cypress, elm, and gingko (the Sacred Tree of China) have been uncovered. Sequoia trees grew in several parts of the State.

Rocks along the margins of Puget Sound have revealed marine forms of the recent, or Cenozoic, era. Bones of mammals of this period, including the mammoth, the horse, and the bison, may be seen in the Whitman College Museum at Walla Walla. A skeleton of the mastodon (Elephas Columbi), built up from remains uncovered in the vicinity of Latah near Spokane in 1878, is a highly valued exhibit in the Field Museum in Chicago.

Washington Climate

Washington's topography, together with warm sea currents, strongly affects the climate, which varies greatly in different areas. Rainfall ranges from extremes of 6 inches in the eastern part to 160 inches in the western. East of the Cascades summer temperatures are often above 100° F. Not uncommonly, eastern Washington winters drop to -- 20° F. and -- 300° F., and crop seasons in the northern and higher portions are sometimes less than 100 days, increasing to 200 days towards the south. The average annual precipitation of 16 ½ inches in this section ranges from 60 inches in the mountains to 6 inches on the plains. The westerly prevailing wind's average velocity is low -- between 5 and 6 miles per hour -- but occasional sand or dust storms visit the and areas.

In western Washington, the heaviest rainfall in the United States occurs on the southwestern slope of the Olympics, at Wynooche, where the average is 141 inches. On the northern side of the Olympics, Sequim has the lightest rainfall, averaging 17 inches, and requires irrigation. The average in the western section, however, is 36 inches. The rainiest month is likely to be December, and the driest, July. Winter temperatures average 40° F., with a daily average minimum of 35°. Summers average 61° F. with a daily average maximum 0f 74°. Yearly snowfall varies widely, averaging less than 13 inches at Seattle, while Snoqualmie Pass has had 400.

Puget Sound area crop seasons average 207 days, diminishing to 185 in the valleys south. First frosts usually occur in November, and the last frosts in March. Wind velocities vary from a yearly average of greater than 12 ½ miles on the coast, with occasional seasonal bursts of hurricane intensity, to 6 miles per hour in the interior.

Washington is a region where nature, on the whole, has been kind, barring it from catastrophic earthquakes, cyclones, drouths, and extensive floods, and endowing it with a climate assumed by scientists to be highly favorable for physical and mental exertion.

Washington Natural Setting

Washington, the Evergreen State, occupies the northwest corner of the United States, with the Pacific Ocean on the west, Canada on the north, Idaho on the east, and Oregon on the south. Although its northwest corner is chewed out by the sea, and its southern border is determined by the meanderings of the Columbia River from the point where it swings westward, the State is roughly rectangular, measuring 360 miles east to west and 240 miles north to south. With a water area of 1,721 square miles and a land area of 66,836 square miles, Washington is larger than all New England.

The State, consisting of seven distinct physiographic areas -- the Olympic Mountains, Willapa Hills, Puget Sound Basin, Cascade Mountains, Okanogan Highlands, Columbia Basin, and Blue Mountains -- represents virtually every topographic variation known in the United States.

The Olympic Mountains, a part of the coastal range, lie between Puget Sound, Juan de Fuca Strait, and the Pacific Ocean, and are separated from the Willapa Hills by the valley of the Chehalis River. The region presents a labyrinth of peaks -- Mount Olympus (8,150 alt.), Mount Fitzhenry (8,098 alt.), and Mount Constance (7,717 alt.), outstanding -- and serrated ridges, broken and eroded. Alpine valleys lakes, and torrential rivers are numerous.

South of the Olympic Mountains are the Willapa Hills, a region of sedimentary and igneous rocks of the Tertiary period. Relatively low, rarely approaching 3,000 feet in elevation, this area receives less rainfall than the northern region, yet vegetation is rank, and there are many streams draining into the Columbia River and Willapa Harbor. Only along the bank of the Columbia River do the hills become abrupt.

The Puget Sound Basin lies between the Olympic and Cascade Mountains in the form of a broad trough, extending from Juan de Fuca Strait, which connects Puget Sound with the Pacific, half way to the Columbia River. It averages 100 feet in elevation in its central portion, while its flanks rise to join the mountains. Based upon rugged folds of sedimentary rocks, rock beds, glaciation, and lava flows, the erosion of innumerable streams has made it relatively uniform. At its southern end are extended plains, reaching almost to the Columbia River. Puget Sound, for which the basin is the trough, is 80 miles long, 8 miles wide at the broadest point, and has depths of 900 feet: a body of water flanked by forested bluffs and low dikelands, with extensive bays, inlets, and passages between the 300 islands that lie within its shores, Of these, the 172 inhabitable islands of the San Juan group (see Island Tour 3) and Whidbey Island, second largest in continental United States, are most noteworthy.

Extending across the State from north to south at its approximate middle longitude is the great barrier of the Cascade Mountains -- shaped somewhat like an hour-glass -- a range, 100 miles wide at the Canadian and Oregon boundaries, and 50 miles at its middle. The numerous peaks average from 6,000 to 8,000 feet in elevation, while the volcanic cones of Mounts Rainier, St. Helens, Baker, Adams, and Glacier Peak rise much higher. Of these peaks, only one, Mount Adams, is on the range axis; the others, St. Helens, Baker, Glacier Peak, and Rainier are on the western flank. Because of their origin, the northern and southern Cascades are quite dissimilar. The rugged southern portion resulted from great igneous activity due to volcanoes, while the northern portion, seemingly a great raised plateau at one time, is more uniform; whatever ruggedness it possesses has resulted from erosion rather than from volcanic action. The streams of the range, as a whole, are strong and deeply bedded. Mountain valleys, once the beds of great glaciers, have been deeply eroded -- leaving grand cirques and amphitheaters, such as the water-filled gorge of Lake Chelan, that are among the great attractions of the range. Only the Columbia River crosses the Cascade Mountains. Three tunnels -- the Cascade, the Rockdale, and the Stampedepierce the Cascades for rail transportation; and the Chinook, Stevens, and Snoqualmie passes make them surmountable by highways.

North of the "Big Bend" of the Columbia River and north of the Spokane River, and merging into the Cascades on the west and the Rockies on the east, are the Okanogan Highlands: beautifully rounded, broad, low hills sloping gently from watersheds to the river beds, with divides -- often 6,000 feet in elevation -- never sharp or abrupt. The Highlands, unlike the heavily wooded Cascades, are largely open and park-like, with a minimum of undergrowth.

South of the Okanogan Highlands almost to the Oregon boundary,and extending east of the Cascades almost to the Idaho boundary, is the Columbia Basin, an area of approximately 1,500,000 acres of sage and scabland. From an elevation of 500 feet at the Columbia River, lowest point in the region, the basin rises rapidly westward toward the foothills of the Cascades; eastward, the rise is more gradual to an elevation of approximately 2,000 feet at the Idaho Line. Ridges, extending east and west through the basin and marking the eroded course of past ice sheets, once rose across streams, but the latter in time have cut through them. The area of the Big Bend is scarred by great, ancient, long-dry river courses, of which Moses Coulee and Grand Coulee are excellent examples. Some of the coulees, however, still hold chains of lakes, strongly alkaline. From the region of the deep canyons of the Snake River and its tributaries, rolling plateaus -- the Palouse Country -- extend north and east, a fertile region of wind-borne soil deposits. In the southeastern corner of the State are the Blue Mountains, a prominent uplift of some 7,000 feet in the lava plain. The rounded domes, rising 2,000 to 4,000 feet above the surrounding basin lands, receive, in contrast to the contiguous country, enough rainfall to support forest growth. The streams, in deep valleys, have affected general contours very little.

From Sagebmsh to Seacoast

Despite the multiplicity of means of communication today, many people still conceive of the State of Washington as virtually a frontier wilderness, accessible only to the rugged and the adventurous. This impression derives in part no doubt from the State's geographic location, in part from its historical association with an Indian war, and in part also from frontier fiction, which usually offers an exaggerated, romantic account of pioneers, cowboys, lumberjacks, and desperadoes.

Two hundred years ago, this region was largely unexplored. The eastern section was a semiarid plateau of rolling hills covered with sagebrush and bunchgrass, the habitat of prairie dogs, coyotes, and rattlesnakes. Here Indians roamed, hunted, and fished. Through these sun-drenched barrens, the majestic Columbia River cut its way to the Pacific Ocean. Forests of lodgepole and ponderosa pine, fir, and tamarack ascended the northern highlands and the eastern slope of the Cascades. On the more humid western side of the range, another dense forest of spruce, Douglas fir, cedar, and hemlock swept down to the coast, unbroken except for Indian trails and occasional prairies and lowland valleys, and somber save when brightened by pink rhododendrons, the shimmering white of dogwood trees in flower, the golden catkins of maple and alder, or in some localities the flame of autumn leaves.

Within these forests, bear, deer, elk, and cougar were plentiful, and the many lakes and rivers, abounding in fish, were frequented by beaver, mink, and otter. Grouse and ptarmigan whirred across the uplands, ducks sought the sheltered waters of inland lakes, and geese honked along the rivers and lowland marshes. Coastal waters and the larger streams teemed with salmon; blackfish and porpoise sported in the Sound and Strait, and whale spouted offshore.

Something of this primitive condition remains today. The visitor to the Evergreen State can still find magnificent virgin forests, vocal with the songs of many birds. He can follow miles of woodland trails and enjoy the beauty of mountain summits, deep gorges, turbulent streams with cascading waterfalls, and clear alpine lakes, mirroring snowcapped peaks and tree-lined shores. He can scale rugged mountains or traverse blue-white glaciers, made dangerous by deep crevasses. He can find many a secluded lake or stream or saltwater channel, where he can test his skill with rod and reel; he can try his luck at bagging a deer, a bear, or a cougar in the pathless wilds. He can drive through deep canyons or along surf-pounded beaches; he can pilot his motorboat through the maze of channels of Puget Sound, or sail before a spanking breeze among hundreds of enchanting islands.

Interesting, too, are the historic relics of the conquest of this wilderness: early mission houses, forts, blockhouses, and other pioneer buildings; the crumbling tombstones in lonely prairie cemeteries; markers on old trails; war canoes, tomahawks, arrowheads, feathered headdresses, and other mementos of the culture of the Indians, whose descendants now live on reservations. All these are a part of the great epic of the march of the pioneer. To see them is to gain a clearer understanding of the history of the Nation.

In the course of the rapid development of the State, the country has been greatly altered. Forests have been cut, leaving vast scarred and denuded areas; grasslands have been broken and planted to wheat; and the arid range, now the feeding ground of cattle and sheep, has been enclosed with barbed-wire fences. Desert lands have been converted by means of irrigation into productive gardens, orchards, and alfalfa tracts. Trains and automobiles now speed where native trails once ran, steamships and ferries ply waters formerly crossed only by primitive dugouts, and airplanes hum overhead. Factories and mills stand where Indians set their weirs; and on the sites of communal Indian villages, large modern cities, with clean, well-lighted streets and tree-lined boulevards, have been built.

On every side lies tangible evidence of the toll that this general and haphazard development of the country has taken; but works designed for the conservation and reclamation of depleted resources are also to be met with everywhere. Selective logging methods have supplanted to a considerable extent the wasteful methods of former years, and a carefully planned system of reforestation of logged-off and burned-over lands, in conjunction with the establishing of extensive national forests, bears promise of the intelligent utilization of existing stands of timber and the partial replacement of those that have been removed. The mighty Grand Coulee Dam and other major power developments, such as the Bonneville, the Skagit, and the Cushman projects were completed and in service in the early forties. The Columbia River Irrigation Project assures the reclamation of more than a million acres of sagebrush country, and a greatly increased agricultural output. Meanwhile, the needs of fish propagation have been provided for in dam construction, with ingenious fish ladders to facilitate the migration upstream of the spawning horde; thus assuring a continued commercial fish pack for the lower Columbia and perpetual sport for the angler. Through the years many national and state parks have been spread over lands withdrawn from commercial use and dedicated to the enjoyment and inspirational needs of man. All of these measures are expressive of a people with broad vision and with the capacity for significant, long-range planning.

The New Washington Recreational Areas

LEAVENWORTH, Wenatchee National Forest. Winter Sports area with numerous forest camps, lakes, and trails. Tumwater Canyon, Drury Falls; Wenatchee River; Icicle River. Abundant wild life; berrying.

SKYKOMISH, Snoqualmie National Forest. Hundreds of lakes, rivers, and creeks and numerous trails. Certain sections along North Bank of the Skykomish River, Foss River, Beckler River and Index Creek, closed during fire season except under special weather conditions. Popular fishing points at Lake Isabel, North Fork of the Skykomish River, Silver Creek, Silver Lake, Twin Lakes, Troublesome Creek, Trout Creek in North Fork of the Skykomish section; South Fork of the Skykomish and Money Creek in same section; both forks of Miller River and Lake Dorothy, Bear Lake, Deer Lake, Snoqualmie Lake, Beckler River, and Rapid River in Miller River section; Foss River, Trout Lake, Delta Lake, Copper Lake, and Angeline Lake in Foss River section; Tye River and Martin Creek, Deception Creek, Surprise Creek and Lake, Glacier Lake, and Lake Josephine in Tye River section. Winter sports in Stevens Pass; ski development under way.

LAKE WENATCHEE, Wenatchee National Forest. Lake Wenatchee and Fish Lake, on highway; swimming, camping, picnicking, fishing, boating. Winter sports in season at Stevens Pass, State 15. Forest roads 18 m. up little Wenatchee River from Lake Wenatchee; 14 m. up White River; about 35 m. up Chiwawa River.

CLE ELUM, Snoqualmie National Forest. Salmon LaSac Guard Station and Camp, 18 miles from Cle Elum; Salmon LaSac to Cooper Lake, 15 m. to Jolly Mountain Lookout, 6 m. by trail; to Lake Waptus, 11 m.; to Fish Lake, 16 m. Trails well developed. Trout fishing; deer and bear hunting. Heavy snows in winter. Tobogganing and skiing area, 21 m. W. of Cle Elum near US 10. Highway open all winter.

WHITE RIVER AND NACHES, Snoqualmie National Forest. Bumping Lake: fishing, outboard racing, skiing, American River; Rattlesnake Camp Preserve; Mather Memorial Parkway; Greenwater River; Naches River; lakes on Cascade Crest Trail. Summer forest homesites; numerous trails; berrying.

TIETON, Snoqualmie National Forest. Tieton River; Rimrock Lake. Deer, elk, bear, blue grouse hunting; fishing and boating.

WIND RIVER, Columbia National Forest. Governmental Mineral Springs Camp, one-day hiking trips; Little Soda Springs camp; Trout Creek Camp; Wind River; Wind River Nursery. Huckleberrying, Indian horse racing, deer hunting, steelhead fishing.

TWIN BUTTES, Columbia National Forest. Race Track Guard Station, 22. m. NE. of Carson. Goose Lake, 5 m.; fishing, forest camp, lava beds. Peterson Registration Station, 36 m. NE. of Carson, forest road fair; starting point to Mount Adams huckleberry fields (reserved for Indians) and numerous Indian camp grounds. Guler and Ranger Station, 25 m. NW. of White Salmon; starting point for ice cave explorations, 5 m. W.; headquarters for fishing at Trout Lake; hotel accommodations.

KETTLE FALLS, Colville National Forest. Game preserve W. of highway between South Fork of Deadman Creek and Boulder Creek. Area sparsely settled, bordered by Kettle River.

CARIBOU TRAIL, Colville National Forest. Bonaparte Lake, 21 m. E. of Tonasket; good fishing, camping; no hunting.

REPUBLIC, Colville National Forest. Trout fishing at Swan, Fish, and Long lakes, reached by new branch road, 10 m. S. of Republic; camp-grounds.

LAKE CHELAN, Chelan and Wenatchee national forests. Domke Lake and return, 5 m., fine fishing; Rainbow Falls, 3 m. up Stehekin River; Lyman Lake Trail via Glacier Trail, 11 m. up Stehekin River, L. 19 m. along Agnes Creek, to Lyman Lake. Lower Horseshoe and Upper Horseshoe basins near Cascade Pass. Horses, guides, equipment available at Lucerne and Stehekin.

MOUNT ADAMS, Columbia National Forest. Alpining and mountaineering.

NOOKSACK, Mount Baker National Forest. Lakes frozen in winter; summer fishing; alpining; skiing; trail trips; public camp accommodations.

HEATHER MEADOWS, Mount Baker National Forest (area usually called Mount Baker). Road open to Mount Baker Lodge; downhill, slalom, cross-country skiing, escalator, hotel, cabin accommodations; first-aid stations. Winter sports from November to June; meadow flowers, alpining, and hiking in summer.

BAKER RIVER, Mount Baker National Forest. Forest road through area from Concrete to Baker Lodge, 22 m. Eleven trail trips; to Dock Butte, 6.5 m.; Mazama Park, 9 m.; Wanlick Creek to Elbow Lake, 14 m.; Upper Creek Park to Martin Lake, 5 m.; Baker Hot Springs, 2.5 m., swimming; Swift Creek Trail, through Austin Pass, about 11 m.; Upper Baker Trail to Eagle Creek, 13 m., trout fishing; Baker Lake Lookout, 2.5 m.; Shuksan Lake, 11 m. (3 miles rough walking), good fishing in late summer; Anderson Butte, 6.5 m., forest lookout station.

RANDLE, Columbia National Forest. North Fork Forest Camp, 10 m. S. of Randle; Chain of Lakes District 30 m. Excellent camping, fishing, huckleberrying, hiking. Area between North Fork and Registration Station, 16 m. Varied views of Mount Adams.

PACKWOOD, Columbia National Forest. Packwood Lake; Soda Springs; Cowlitz River. Fishing, forest camps and trails; hiking and alpining.

GOAT ROCKS RECREATION AREA, Columbia National Forest. Accessible only by trail; no developed campgrounds; fishing limited; goat hunting not allowed. Lost Lake Trail; Purcell Creek Trail, Clear Fork Trail. Guides and horses available at Packwood.

SPIRIT LAKE, Columbia National Forest. Mount St. Helens (9,671 alt.), active volcano as late as November 23, 1842; alpining. Spirit Lake: boating, fishing, swimming, camping, hiking. Smith Creek Butte Lookout, 8 m. SE. of Spirit Lake; St. Helens Lake 3 m., fishing; good road.

HOOD CANAL, Olympic National Forest. Lake Cushman: Skokomish Primitive Area; Olympic National Park; Mount Ellinor; Duckabush River; Mount Olympus; Mount Constance. Elk and deer hunting; salt-water fishing; trout fishing.

SNOW PEAKS, Olympic National Forest and Olympic National Park. Quilcene River, Elwah River, Dungeness River, Dosewallips River; lake and river fishing. Mount Angels; Deer Park skiing area; forest camps; horse and foot trail trips. Olympic Hot Springs.

LAKE CRESCENT, Olympic National Forest: Lake Crescent, Lake Sutherland; Beardslee trout at Crescent. Sol Duc Hot Springs, Bogachiel, Calawah, Soleduck, and Hoh Rivers. Olympic National Park; few trails in western section, several in eastern; logging operations.

QUINAULT LAKE, Olympic National Forest. Trail riders' trip, 13 days by horseback; start and finish at Graves Creek Inn, near Lake Quinault; guides necessary; fishing, alpining, photographing; hike over Anderson Glacier, climb to summit of Mount Christie, Olympic National Park. Season: mid-June to mid-September.

LAKE ROOSEVELT upstream from Grand Coulee Dam and extending 151 miles to the Canadian Border. Federal development of the area for recreational use is under way. Waterside camps, some overnight camping privileges; cruising; fishing; photographing. To be enjoyed only in favorable weather, from June to mid-September. This longest man-made lake averages 4,000 feet in width, with a maximum depth Of 405 feet.

LAKE McNARY, above McNary Dam, on the Columbia River. This lake will extend 60 miles upstream, to the vicinity of Pasco, and will provide 67 miles of slackwater for recreational use.