The Northern Part of this peculiar Division of the main Continent is formed by a Succession of deep Lakes, the Lakes George and Champlain, which issue the Waste of their Waters through the little River Sorel into Canada River; the Bed of these Lakes is likewise formed by a deep Chasm amidst Mountains, running North and South, as continuing the same Line of the Hudson's [Hudson] River.
This River is usually, & especially by the Dutch Inhabitants of this Country, called North River. The Tract of Country lyeing between This River & the Delaware River inclusive was possessed by the Dutch under the Name of New Netherlands. They gave the two relative names of North & South River to this & the Delaware River. Their Chief Post & Town was New-Amsterdam which the English afterwards called New-York.
The Hudson's [Hudson] River arises from Two main Sources derived by Two Branches which meet about Ten Miles above Albany, the one called the Mohawk's [Mohawk] River (rising in a flat level Tract of Country, at the very Top or Height of the Land to Westward) comes away E. and S.E. at the Foot, on the North Sides of the Mountains, which the Indians call by a Name signifying the Endless Mountains. It runs in a Vale, which it seems to have worn itself, with Interval Lands on each Side, for about 100 miles.
The soil at the height of the Land & at the head of this River doth appear to be Low Land, that is, It is flatt, & a deep Rich Soil not yet worn away & full of bogs, ponds, & springs from whence not only this Mohawk River But the Onondaga River which empties itself into Lake Ontario at Oswego derive. The River keeps on with a quiet still Stream to Burnet's field having Lands of a deep & rich soil on both sides. At Burnet's field (a very fine settlement so called from Govr Burnet) The Vale & Interval Lands form a Space from ye west or upper end to ye Falls about 11 miles long & from 2 ½ to 3 ½ miles wide. This Settlement in 1754 consisted of about 120 Houses. The Stream after this quickens in its motion & begins to Wear a Valley by washing away the soil of the Lands through which it runs, but has however rich interval Lands on both sides which Produce Wheat Peas & Hemp without Dunge or Manure.
Going from Albany one rides along the banks of the Hudson river for six miles through most delightfull meadows, that is what we should call meadows in England, but all in tillage form. The river is on the right hand: The bank on the opposite shore is high woodlands sloping gently down to the Waters edge; on the left are these meadows from half to three quarters of a mile in breadth, then hilly woodlands rising gently. For two miles further through the commencement of settlements but in part clear'd. Then through Woods, Oak, Chestnut Walnut, Chesnutoak & Elm & so for the rest of the way about four or five miles more. Here one begins to hear the Pouiflosboish noise of the Tumultuous rushing & dashing of Waters which amidst the stillness of the Woods is like the roar of a Storm at Sea heard from the Land in the dead of night.